Buying on the Internet education campaign for consumers

Dear customer. When buying over the Internet:

  1. Check seller reviews
  2. Check the seller’s contact and identification details
  3. Check the terms and conditions for specific returns
  4. Verify that the data transfer occurs on a secure SSL connection)
  5. Check your choice of different payment methods
  6. Read carefully the offer BUFALE of participants at auctions and Bulletin boards
  7. Log out at the end
  8. Write your comment after each transaction
  9. Keep correspondence with the seller
  10. In case of a dispute, use the mediation platform for out-of-court settlement of disputes between the e-store and the consumer.

Black Friday or Cyber Monday and the days next to them make it possible to take advantage of the promotion also in online stores. Poles are increasingly buying over the Internet, which gives a wider choice of products, often lower prices and convenience.

Buying on the Internet education campaign for consumers

However, before you click on the button labeled „Pay”, it is worth remembering a few rules related to online purchases. And know what is different from the point of view of the consumer, buying online from visits to desktop stores and how it looks in the case of online stores located abroad.

Using, in particular, the materials of the Office for the protection of competition and consumers, we have prepared a set of the most important rules.

You have the opportunity to return the goods within 14 days
In contrast to the stores table, which can accept the return or not, the goods purchased via the Internet can be returned without giving reasons within 14 days of receipt. This entry applies to stores registered throughout the European Union.


To make a refund, simply fill out and submit a contract termination application along with the goods the online seller should provide a sample of such application. You can also write them yourself and send them, for example, by e-mail.

Important! If you have not been notified of the right to withdraw, this period is extended to 12 months. The entrepreneur is obliged to return to you all payments made, including the cost of delivery of things in the amount of the cheapest conventional shipping method that offers. However, the cost of returning the goods shall be borne by the consumer, if the entrepreneur did not inform him about it or agreed to bear them on their own.However, the cost of returning the goods shall be borne by the consumer, if the entrepreneur did not inform him about it or agreed to bear them on their own.

The returned product must not bear any traces of use. However, you can check it on the same as in a stationary store, that is, to the extent necessary to identify the nature, characteristics and functioning of things. If there are traces of use, the entrepreneur can reduce the return value.

In turn, ordering something in China or in the US, you need to carefully read the terms of the return.

Some items cannot be returned
It turns out that not all products are refundable in the EU, even when buying online. Restrictions apply:

  • products with a short shelf life
  • goods made by special order of the client (for example, jewelry with engraving)
  • audio, visual or software recordings whose packaging has been opened after delivery
  • accommodation services
  • services in the field of recreation (e.g., stay in Spa)
  • tickets to concerts or sporting events
  • passenger transportation services (e.g. air ticket)

What is online shopping?

Purchase of products and services via the Internet. Online shopping is becoming more and more popular due to convenience (and often lower prices). Especially during the Christmas season shopping on the people avoid the trouble of watching a few stores, and then they wait in long queues to buy a specific item.

Purchase of products and services via the Interne

Currently, companies, organizations and entrepreneurs have the opportunity to make a modern type of sale called „online sales” (also known as online sales or sales) to sell their products, services, ideas or other, not just in the city or country where they live but also in other countries around the world, as well as 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

For these reasons, it is very convenient that both marketers, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs know the answers to three important questions about this type of sales: 1) What is online sales? 2) What are its advantages? and 3) what product categories are suggested to be sold through this type of sale?

In more detail, „when a company, organization or person uses a website (own or third party) to sell their products or services, then another company, organization or person uses a computer connected to the Internet to buy these products or services, it can be said that the parties intervened in electronic transactions or online sales. ”

Therefore, online sales consist of offering products, services, ideas or other via the website in such a way that potential buyers can know what they are and what their benefits and benefits are through this website. and if they are interested, they can buy „online” for example by paying the price of the product with a credit card and then picking it up at the given address (eg when buying books, computer equipment, toys, etc.) or by downloading online (when it comes to products digital, such as software, e-books, pictures, etc.).

On-line sales

On-line sales offers the following benefits for companies that perform this type of sales:

  • Quick adaptation to market conditions: companies can add or remove products to their online catalogs;
  • Or change prices and descriptions. All this in a few hours.

Lower costs: For example, in the case of digital products (books, software, music and movies), the company’s costs related to infrastructure, personnel, insurance, water, electricity, etc. are saved, which are important in the case of physical products. Another example is the visible publication of directories, because digital catalogs are printed lower than the cost.

On-line sales

Audience size: Online sales through the website can take place anywhere in the world, which is why the number of recipients increases significantly in comparison to local or national audience. This advantage is more visible in digital products that can be downloaded online anywhere in the world.
Creating relationships: Thanks to the applications offered today via the Internet (chats, e-mails, forums, etc.), companies can create and maintain customer relations quickly and immediately. In addition, they can obtain valuable information from them via online questionnaires.
The convenience of time and space: online sales can be made by any person, company or organization, anywhere in the world and at any time (24/7).

Online transactions

Minimum restrictions: Both large and small businesses, and even individual entrepreneurs can afford to sell online, either from their own website or through a third party.
Online transactions can be performed using one of the following formats:

  • B2B (Business to Business or Company to Company): This type of e-commerce refers to trading operations between companies, such as placing orders, checking inventory, scheduling production, etc. …
  • B2C (Business to Consumer or Consumer Business): This is a traditional website through which the company offers its products and services to consumers
  • C2C (Consumer for Consumer or Consumer for Consumer): In this type of e-commerce, the consumer offers products and services to other consumers directly via his own website or through websites created by third parties.

Online transactionsIn the field of e-commerce, online purchase is a voluntary activity consisting of purchasing goods or remotely ordering a service via the Internet, in exchange for a price.

In order to make an online purchase, as in any contract, there must be a buyer, a salesperson (service provider of the information society), thing, price and consent, in accordance with art. 1254 of the Civil Code: „An agreement exists for one or several persons who agree to be obliged, with respect to another or others, to provide something or to provide some service.

100 of the Best PC Games of All Time (2019)

For bunyak gamers in Indonesia, the PC is still so particularly the main platform in the game play.

There is a bani byak alas, one of them a fairly low cost because you can download pirated ones offered for sale.

Any alastannya, no match against berkukuitas that is still not known by gamers Indonesia, may revoke such games cukup’secara gameplay.

Yes as we know, gamers Indonesia usually just play the game ball or game mainstream.

  • Well in this article I will tell you those games are not so mainstreamun got a rating Ting dariqitas PC gamers international.
  • The order of the list of 100 PC games the best this based on the appraiser olehana editor and games expert of the byak site of the famous game that had tallied dikembur Olek lifetime.
  • The pen not only dilakutan based on the number of manjalan and graphics ditawarnakan, but from bertagai kinds of aspects,sepertita cerpeplay.

Check also game PC & Android monetize viral, the game Switches ternaik & PS4 games the best.

# 100. Dark Souls III
From Software, Namco Bandai Games, 2016
Role-playing ” Action RPG
Dark Souls III

# 99. Max Payne 2: the collapse of Max Payne
Remedy Entertainment, Rockstar Games, 2003
Action „Shooter” Third-Person ” Arcade

Max Payne 2: the collapse of Max Payne

# 98. Torchlight II
Runic Games, 2012 Check also game PC & Android monetize viral, the game Switches ternaik & PS4 games the best.
Role-playing ” Action RPG
Torchlight II

The number 97. Real
Epic Game, Infantry, 1998
Action „Shooter” First-Person ” Arcade

# 96. Diablo II
Blizzard North, Blizzard Entertainment, 2000
Role-playing ” Action RPG
Diablo II

# 95. Prince of Persia: the sands of time
Ubisoft, 2003
Action Adventure ” Linear
Prince of Persia: the sands of time

94. Natural Disasters …
Barking Dog, Sierra Entertainment, 2000
Strategy „Real-Time” General
Natural Disasters …

# 93. Tales from the borderlands: Episode 5-The Vault of the Traveler
The Game Tellale, 2015
Adventure ” General
Tales from the borderlands: Episode 5-The Vault of the Traveler

# 92. Silent Hunter III
Ubisoft, 2005
Simulation „Marines” Battle
Silent Hunter III

91. Age of mythology
Ensemble Studios, Microsoft Game Studios, 2002
Strategy „Real-Time” General
Age of mythology

# 90. Battlefield 1942
Digital Illusions, Electronic Arts, 2002
Action „Shooter” First-Person ” Arcade Age of mythology
Battlefield 1942

# 89. Pillars Of Eternity
Entertainment Obsidian, Paradox Interactive, 2015
Play The Role Of ” Western Style
Pillars Of Eternity

The number 88. Baldur’s Gate II: Throne of Bhaal
BioWare, Interplay, 2001
Play The Role Of ” Western Style
Baldur’s Gate II: Throne of Bhaal

87. Sid Meier’s civilization III.
Firaxis Games, Mikroprose, 2001
Strategy „Turn-Based” 4X
Sid Meier’s civilization III.

86. Row Saints IV
Volition Inc., Deep Silver, 2013
Action Adventure ” Open-World
Row Saints IV

For many gamers, the PC is still one of the platform options in the game play in addition to Playstation, Xbox and Smartphone.

The reason to play the game on a PC screen is wider and the thrill of playing the game more satisfying, it is reason for gamers to keep playing the game on your PC or laptop. There are various games which are presented by a variety of manufacturers of games, ranging from online games and offline. The developers of the video game any time this race presents a variety of video games similar to the real world.

Talk about the game, the game offline is the thing most sought after by most gamers, because they no longer need to wear the internet quota to play it. Usually enthusiasts PC game offline play with single player mode or multi player. Game offline, there is also not less exciting with the online game. A variety of games offline android and PC comes with a wide selection of interesting story, best graphics full of thrills and excitement in the play. Curious with the game what is it? Let’s look at the 13 articles Game Offline PC Best 2018 – 2019 the most fun for you to play.

Prototype 2For many gamers, the PC is still one of the platform options in the game play in addition to Playstation, Xbox and Smartphone.

Prototype 2 is one of the Open World Games the most bloody and also sadistic. Brings the genre of Action-Adventure and the quality of the graphics on high, this game is the second version of the series of Prototype 1. Game made by Radical Entertainment is admirable. In this game you could simply slam the military weapons of large-sized, mutant, disgusting, or even chop up a living creature intelligent other to replenish health.

For those of you who want to follow the storyline of this game, it is recommended to try the first version first. In Prototype 2 you will not see Alex Mercer. Instead, you will assume the role of Sergeant James Heller. In this game you are required to avenge the deaths of the family of the main character. The Game itself is still ber-setting in New York Zero, that is divided into three main areas, Red Zone, Yellow Zone, and Green Zone.

Call of duty –

Yes, who does not know the best war game on this one, Call Of Duty Games made by Activision this is a war game genre FPS and uniquely combined with other genres such as action and adventure. For those of you who really like adventure, FPS games this will be very suitable for you to play. Starting from the Call Of Duty version 1 Call Of Duty version Black Ops. In the game Call Of Duty that has multiple series, you will be invited to reminisce, to recall the development of the game Call of Duty from time to time. And of course, for the majority of gamers will certainly have special memories when the play of each series.

In this game players are required to complete a mission from the beginning up to the last mission and follow the storyline until the mission is completed. Players will be assisted by a teammate right in a real war for through a mission. So, you will not be alone in the fight against a collection of enemies. This Game is worth you try and play.

Atari Jaguar graphics

Atari is a company with a rich history, however, as many people remember, the number of its success is directly proportional to the defeats suffered. Jaguar only a few months acted on the imagination of consumers and lousy games, subsequent delays, high price and CD-ROM, which in combination with the rest looked like a toilet in any case was not a harbinger of new Atari jaguar graphics quality.

Here is the story of one of the most underrated V generation platforms, presented through the eyes of Sam tram of the then President Atari. The story is about an untapped potential that was destroyed by the inconsistency of the system creators and the potential of the first PlayStation…

Atari 64

Atari 64

The console debuted in 1993 and touted as a 64-bit monster (or kitten) made a lot of noise in the industry press. Jaguar Atari 64 on paper crushed the moment in the market competition and managed to be on the black horse V Generation. The beginning was moderately promising, the system sold much better from the competitive 3DO, even though the price was $ 100 higher than promised small. IBM, whose factories produced a kitten did not hide satisfaction, and Atari itself has allocated $ 3 million for advertising, and opened a special hotline.

The idyll, however, didn’t last too long because the exorbitant price, the recombined Mat, programming problems and a small number of games quickly led, Atari 64 to the ground. Accusations that the system only pretends to be a 64-bit console, he fought back like a lioness defending her young tramps himself. „There is no doubt that Jaguar is running 64-bit. Look at the PC-you, called Pentium 64-bit, but no one notices that it is equipped with 8-bit components and chips. Even the clock is 8-bit.”

The Atari Jaguar specs thing, however, was that only part of the chips that Jaguar was equipped with could boast of 64-bits. The console’s main processor offered „only” 32-bit, and the 16-bit control unit (Motorola 68000) is a layout that’s been around for a couple of good years. Therefore, for Jaguar stuck label pseudo 64-bit system. Tramiel also justified the high price of the console, but only when it fell to $149. „At the time of release, we had no other choice, but understands that the price was too high for the average player.

Sales despite being decent did not reach the ceiling we had planned. Jaguar is not profitable from the start, but we see it as an investment in the future.” In one of the interviews there is also an interesting review. „Our equipment, we are able to compare products Gillete. We sell our razors at a price to earn on razors. When the sale of software will increase, it will also have an impact on the demand of the same console, and then we will finally start earning.” Unfortunately, it was only the tram’s pious wishes because the console never started making money on itself…

Atari Jaguar specs

Atari Jaguar specs

Few, however, know that Atari even before the premiere of Saturn signed an agreement with Sega. The case concerned infringement of patents and technologies for which Tramiel had exclusivity. The process went on for a very long time and both companies wanting to have it already went for the Atari Jaguar specs deal. Apart from the fact that Sega paid what you needed, getting in exchange for a 7% stake in the company, the agreement also contained a rather interesting point, which Tramiel did not fail to mention. „We had a very friendly agreement with shoga. There would be no problem if we wanted to spend Tempest 2000 on Saturn, Sega, and could, for example, release Virtua Fighter on Jaguar.”

Looking at it in retrospect, it seems that blue’s decision did not bring any benefit, however, let’s not forget that nothing was decided then. In case Jaguar 64 somehow succeeded and Saturn died releasing their hits on the competitor’s console would always be the way out. The reality was brutal, because, as we know, none of the consoles did not know the sales racks.

Tramiel in its own way agrees with many market analysts who made it clear that the Atari Jaguar graphics can be seen as outdated and outdated. Since the Atari 2600, the company has not been able to boast of success in the console market, synonymous with the Nintendo and Sega platforms.” In some ways right, so the boxes with our consoles huge inscription Jaguar 64, as well as a small brand Atari in the gray corner. Despite the fact that we are focused on the name of the Jaguar we make it clear that this created its Atari slowly taming consumers back to the brand market,” said Tramel.

However, President Atari was well aware that it would not be easy. „When you are at the top it is very hard to keep on it. Atari was on top, Nintendo was on top, Sega also-we’ll see who’s going to be on it this time,” Tramel postulates, until realizing he hasn’t replaced the company that will condemn all the old helpers.”The Atari Jaguar 64 bit players are very smart, and they have a new Toyota model for regular customers every year. They are constantly changing the front, investing in the most fashionable and interesting system at the moment,” he added.

Atari Jaguar 64 bit

Atari Jaguar 64 bitThe fact is that the Atari Jaguar logo in any case does not try to be interesting, and even production like Raiden, Dino Dudes Lee Crescent Galaxy were rooted in the 16-bit era. Gems such as Tempest 2000 or Alien vs Predator appeared too late and were no longer able to save the Atari Jaguar 64 bit system. And how did the Atari President explain the fact that the kitten hasn’t had a game for a long time that would be related to the system, feeding on conversions from the PCT and the Amiga? „Please note that 3DO has no Atari Jaguar logo icons, Sony its not. We, however, believe that it would be cool to have such a toy. If you remember the old tempest, you probably know major Havoc, who goes to the rescue of the space station. It was a great character, we’re going to upgrade it to become Atari’s calling card.”

Players to this day wonder how vector faceless character so fascinated by tram. And then He could not, however, refrain from further comparisons. „Alien vs Predator, Tempest 2000 or Iron Soldier is a game that will not let the Council pull none 16-bit machine, and Saturn could not cope with them better than doing it „Jaguar”. It’s also no secret that most third-party developers have moved away from Atari, although it initially announced support. „I’m a little disappointed with this fact, but not on purpose, because I keep saying we want to be the Main game publisher for our system. Thus, we are going to make money” – commented Tramiel.

Later, less anxiety disorders develop in their lives and they will not be so uncertain

Those children who fall into the computer environment learn too quickly there: everything works by pressing the right button. They no longer tolerate mistakes, they do not bear frustration and are no longer able to control their impulses. In the real world, he is unable to navigate.

It depends on the family environment and the role of home media

However, if children are part of a community of life and somehow experience adventures such as Scouts, they are less influenced by virtual worlds: play with the computer less and do not look far enough TV. They become a real, healthy personality.

It depends on the family environment and the role of home media

Let’s say that such a personality develops: like everyone, Like his companions, he will also want to create a chat profile. What are the threats? The child is not dependent on the computer. And never a strong, lively, open, interesting and creative child with strong, good relationships are those who fall into the power of electrical media.

I do not see any threat in them. They will see computers as they should: great tools for efficient brain use. The Internet is being discovered as a gigantic knowledge that allows them to answer real-life questions. But what happens in the mind of a ten-year-old child when you accidentally make a mistake with pornography or some terrible content?

Is not that a big shock? Not necessarily. It depends on the family environment and the role of home media. As far as we are concerned, in adults the sign of terrible brutality appears to many children as one of many possible forms of convergence. A child who is covered by passive media consumption will not even be able to assess what he sees. His experience tells him that such things can happen on this screen.

The parents cut them off from natural impoverishment

The parents cut them off from natural impoverishment

Where does the fox see chasing a rabbit, where it is that people laugh when Donald and Pluto Donut beat each apartment, respectively – and then, as if nothing happened, they rise again. Screen womens izomagyú defeat each other’s skull against the roar of the crowd, and then I see children that two people love each other, for example, or cut off each other’s head.

The parents cut them off from natural impoverishment. Because it was early when the child experienced that it makes no sense to think about all this. You have learned that you may not be able to understand what is happening on the screen. But what happens to those children who have almost no experience with passive media?

The child’s brain will try this new image, no matter how confusing it is, match it to the existing one to understand it. Your impressions will be kept as a form of communication between people. It is very important that parents are clearly explained: this is not a desirable form of coexistence with others.

It is worth considering what society is going to get children to say goodbye to the real world

It is worth considering what society is going to get children to say goodbye to the real world

If someone did it to you in reality, it would be terrible for you. Therefore, children need not only tasks that help in their development, but also people who guide them. Yes, they need urgent image models that will allow them not to enter into suspicious communities and not to run into dubious tasks.

It is always wasted when children are unable to develop their skills, what adults need again. The computer industry only satisfies demand. And as long as there are enough parents who do not understand the needs of their children in the real world, the supply of digital media will increase.

And if children grow up in such circumstances, they will look for tasks that they will need. It is worth considering what society is going to get children to say goodbye to the real world. Thanks to this, the brain is optimally adapted to the virtual virtual world and computer games.

Of course, many parents do not know what the developmental task of the child may be

The child must find it for himself and this task must be really difficult and long-lasting. In the end, we will be like him when we climb the mountain, we just sit and just feel happy. The sign that the child has solved the real task of not having any external praise is good enough by yourself.

First of all, boys go to computers right after school

Today, boys think that their work is developing into computer games. Because in tournaments they can show how good they are. But these tasks are not the only way to help them find a realistic life. Who are the most sensitive children? About 40 percent of German students go to school with anxiety.

First of all, boys go to computers right after school

First of all, boys go to computers right after school. They need at least one or two hours of shooters. The computer serves them as a means of reducing frustration. Standing in the adventures of virtual worlds, the monsters are massacred and become winners, they find a way out of inertia, from the accumulation of aggression. They build their frustration with a peculiar performance.

So the prize system will come into effect. Exactly. It’s as if the children had a wonderful new life. This experience, however, refers to a life that does not exist in reality. Saying neurobiologically, it is fatal: a child trains her in life situations that appear only on the screen.

Computers also increase the illusion of controllability. When a child plays with another, he realizes that in reality not all can be controlled. Another person does not always do what we want. Besides, many guys do not even detect their body during the game. They do not need sleep anymore, they do not react to the signs of hunger or thirst. In Southeast Asia, the first cases of starving and computer-addicted young people have sunk when they are sitting in front of a computer.

All the rest is just a virtual connection

All the rest is just a virtual connection

You’re talking mainly about boys. But what do the girls do with the computer? They talk. Girls feel more in need of something to which they can belong and build relationships. Then, if it really can not be talked to some extent before the able pótkielégítésként lack of intimacy and attachment. The girl where I can not trust every five minutes.

The fact that girls talk so much is a sign that they are really uncertain and can not trust the durability and strength of the relationship. Just like when the chicks call their mother. And real social relations will wither? It does not have to be that way. Only then can they have a real relationship with the other person when they are together.

All the rest is just a virtual connection. Believe in virtual spaces, people are not fully present. They have no smell, no smell, their movements and other manifestations are unrealistic. The peculiarities of encounters in real life do not occur in virtuality. They only communicate in writing during the chat.

Some of them can help teach older people to use computers and the Internet

Some of them can help teach older people to use computers and the Internet

What can parents recognize that their children are drawn into the virtual world? How can they protect their children from impending impoverishment? If the child would rather sit in front of the computer, instead of running there, run and play with others, so if it does not meet the natural needs, then it is disturbing thing parents should react already.

But not by prohibition. Instead, they must try to offer challenges to the real world they can meet. Adventures, unexpected events, surprising and even dangerous situations that a child can overcome from now on. Parents must put something else in the minds of their children, along with these broad computer advisers. Many parents write about childbirth in Asian martial arts, about a tent camp or about looking after smaller children.

Some of them can help teach older people to use computers and the Internet. These children will be able to talk to others later and will be able to solve problems together. In the years that make them decisive for the extent of the brain, their parents provide a wide spectrum of real world experiences.



In the middle of the XVI century, Livonia collapsed. The lands north of the Dvina were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Courland bishopric was sold to the Danish king. The northern part, together with Revel (Tallinn), fell under the authority of the King of Sweden Gustav P. Adolf. Courland remained at the mercy of Poland. In Daugavpils firmly established Jesuits.

However, in these difficult conditions, the Orthodox Church was not destroyed. In 1570 the Orthodox Episcopal Department was founded in Yuriev (Tartu), on which His Grace Bishop Cornelius was placed.

In Ilukste, according to the testimony of Jesuit A. Posevin, only Orthodox lived (1582). But it was precisely in these years that the widespread planting of Uniatism began as a transitional stage in the conversion of the Orthodox Church to Catholicism.

The middle of the XVII century is associated with the economic revival of Courland. Duke Jekab promotes the settlement in the area of ​​modern Jekabpils exclusively Orthodox people who fled from religious persecution. Soon the ancient settlement near the estate Holmhof was raised to the city level with the name Jacobstadt. By this time, churches of St. Nicholas and Holy Spirit with a monastery.

However, the Swedes, taking Kurland, ravaged the duchy and captured Duke Jacob himself. The persecution of Orthodoxy began again.

Attitude to Orthodoxy began to change somewhat after 1710, when the Swedish Governor-General of Riga, Stromberg signed a surrender, and the Riga Magistrate, the German nobility and the burghers presented the keys to Riga to Sheremetev and took an oath of allegiance to Russia on the Town Hall Square. But here, in the area of ​​the mouth of the Dvina, there was not a single Orthodox church.

Gradually, the Orthodox Church returned to its origins. Temples began to be built, new parishes were opened.

At the beginning of the 19th century, discussions began on issues related to the independence of the administration of the churches of the Baltic provinces.

After a while, the Holy Synod, with the highest permission, issues a decree on the establishment of vicarism in Riga. As the first vicar of the Pskov diocese, a highly educated, who speaks several languages, including German, Bishop Irinarch is appointed.

His Grace Irinarkh arrived in Riga in the autumn of 1836, and on November 8 he performed his first divine service in the Peter and Paul Church. From this time, bishop services began on Sundays and holidays, and the church began to be called the Peter-and-Paul Cathedral.

However, the stay of Bishop Irinarch in Riga turned out to be extremely difficult. It coincided with the beginning of a spontaneous mass transition of the local population to Orthodoxy; The German authorities, outraged by this circumstance, began persecution. They accused the vicar of incitement to revolt and, on the basis of denunciations, they secretly took him out of Riga to Pskov, and then under the supervision of the Pskov-Caves Monastery. In his case, the investigation began.

Bishop Filaret (Gumilevsky) was sent to Riga. Prior to that, he was the rector of the Moscow Theological Academy. His arrival (1842) was immediately met with hostility. Numerous instructions of the Holy Synod severely restricted his activities, hoping to pacify the German authorities and prevent the local population from converting to Orthodoxy. But this process, despite the brutal measures, largely went out of control and no still continued, albeit on a much smaller scale. Not only Lutherans were converted to Orthodoxy. On April 21, 1845, Bishop Filaret (Gumilevsky) performed at the Petro-Pavlovsky Cathedral in Riga, with a huge gathering of people, anointing of members of the Hernguter community who wished to convert to Orthodoxy.

This aggravated the negative attitude towards the vicar. They slander him, write denunciations, arrange surveillance. But the vicar continues his activity. He pays a lot of attention to the opening of the first Orthodox religious school in Riga with instruction in the Latvian and Estonian languages, and begins publishing in the native languages ​​of liturgical and theological literature.

His Grace Bishop Philaret visits parishes, examines the condition of churches in the countryside. He takes care of parochial schools, the preparation of priests for the Latvian and Estonian parishes. But any of his activities are faced with the hostility of the authorities.

However, it was not possible to break Bishop Philaret. And then, probably, not without a secret petition, it is transferred to a higher department.

Latvian Orthodox Church

Latvia, located on the route “from the Varangians to the Greeks,” has long been in the sphere of interconnections between the north and the south from the Pontic (Black) Sea to the cold waters. This circumstance contributed to the early penetration of Christianity on the banks of the Dvina (Daugava), which had been known since ancient times. The chronicle of Nestor (according to the Lavrentiev list) states: “Dnepr more flowed from the Volkovsky forest, and flowed in half a day, and Dvina from the same forest flowed to the polnoysh and entered the Sea of ​​Voriazhsky.”

According to the Dvina, according to ancient tradition, the Apostle Andrew the First-Called, preaching the Word of God, reached the shores of the Baltic and headed by sea to Scandinavia. In these ways, as well as along the roads leading to Pskov, Smolensk and Veliky Novgorod, Orthodoxy also spread itself. It has never been planted by anyone, not prescribed and not imposed by force. Orthodoxy was perceived by local people in communion with the Belarusians, Great Russians, who from ancient times communicated and lived with the tribes of Letighol, villages, zemgala, Kors, Leaves, Vendians (of Slavic origin).

It is noteworthy that it was Vends that gave such names as the Venta River, Vindava (Ventspils), and Venden (Cesis). It is characteristic that the Germans called the Vendians Russians, and the Estonians called the Russians the word “Vened”.

Since ancient times, the tribes living in the territory of modern Latvia, widely communicated among themselves. This is especially evident in the vocabulary. So, in the Latvian language in all areas of spiritual and material culture there are many lexical borrowings: baznīsa (divine), svetit (holy), svece (candle), Lieldienas (Easter-Velikdeni), zvanīt (call), nerediļ (week); gads (year), etc.

About the early self-propagation of Orthodoxy in the territory of Latvia say the found objects of life, crosses, images of St.. George of those distant years.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Orthodox people lived not only along the banks of the Dvina, but also Gauja, Venta, Lielupe, the Gulf of Riga, as well as in a number of German, Swedish, Finnish and even German lands. At the same time, it is reliably known that in history there has not been a single case of violent planting of the Orthodox faith in these parts.

By the beginning of the XI century, on the territory of Latvia there were already such outstanding Orthodox spiritual centers as Jersika. Here, according to the chronicles of the Catholic Heinrich of Latvia, there were several temples with richly decorated icons, utensils made of expensive metals, and magnificent frescoes.

On the right bank of the mouth of the Daugava (Dvina) was the first church built in these parts, consecrated in the name of St. Nicholas, patron sailing and traveling.

Catholic missionary work in this region began much later. For this, the permission of the Prince of Polotsk Vladimir, who gave his consent, was first requested. From that time on, the Orthodox Church for several centuries found itself in the hardest conditions. Already at the end of the XII and at the beginning of the XIII century, the forcible imposition of the “Latin” faith began in these parts. The knights of the Order of the Sword with fire and sword ravaged and destroyed such Orthodox spiritual centers as Jersika, Atzel, Lucane (Ludza), Kukenois (Koknese), ancient Tolovo (between Smiltene and Valmiera), Venden (Cesis) and others. And only the Church of St. Nicholas in Riga survived and remained active for about three centuries.

In the middle of the XVI century, Livonia collapsed. The lands north of the Dvina were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Courland bishopric was sold to the Danish king. The northern part, together with Revel (Tallinn), fell under the authority of the King of Sweden Gustav P. Adolf. Courland remained at the mercy of Poland. In Daugavpils firmly established Jesuits.

However, in these difficult conditions, the Orthodox Church was not destroyed. In 1570 the Orthodox Episcopal Department was founded in Yuriev (Tartu), on which His Grace Bishop Cornelius was placed.

In Ilukste, according to the testimony of Jesuit A. Posevin, only Orthodox lived (1582). But it was precisely in these years that the widespread planting of Uniatism began as a transitional stage in the conversion of the Orthodox Church to Catholicism.